Ruth Lopez



What is Instructional Technology to me?   Instructional Technology is a way of teaching using technology and different theories that will help the instructor design a course.  By using technology when teaching can make learning more efficient.

IT Trends: Technology is changing every day and one must be willing to adapt to new changes. In the past in order for some to receive a letter it would take weeks now with the technology we can send an e-mail and the other person will get it in minutes that is one example of how technology has improved our lives.

History of Instructional Technology:   Instructional technology can be traced back to world war II when the solders needed to be trained, and using technology was a fast way to teach most solders.  Technology has evolved every day for the past few decades, it started with the radio as a way to communicate the communication was only one way, then Television same one-way communication but as time passed we began to see more computers, then the internet change our way of life.  Now we can teach a course anywhere in the world using eLearning.  By applying some of the instructional design like analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluations a designer can create a very efficient course. 

What did I Learn? The different theories are very helpful because we can see that students learn in different ways, as in instructor one must adapt and take under consideration the needs of the different students.  By applying some of the theories we have a better way to understand students and the material presented to them.

Learning Theories:


Behavioral Theory:  This theory believes in conditional learning using a series of punishments and rewards. Learning could be based on the environment condition.   Using Flash cards or games would help.   The behaviorism theory plays a big role in the classes that I teach, through the class I like to ask questions to keep the students engaged if they answer the questions correctly they get a small reward.  I find this method very helpful because the student participated in the class and the class environment becomes more pleasant.  I enjoy teaching a class when the students are part of the teaching and learning experience.

Cognitivism Theory: This theory replaced the behavioral theory in the 1960's, in this theory learning information process like a computer; information comes in gets processed and then transmitted based on the learners understanding.  This would have developed from short term memory to long term memory, this theory has to do with a lot of memorizing.  The cognitivism theory is helpful to the students that likes to memorize.  In my courses we really do not do a lot of memorizing most of the material is common sense.

Constructivism Theory:  This is my favorite theory because the learners construct their own meaning, creating their own knowledge base on past experience. Things that make sense will be remembered versus memorizing. Most of the students that attend my course is because they have bad credit and they don’t know how to budget their money.  When they see that having good credit can make life a lot easier they can bring back memories of all the time they got rejected when applying for credit.  Most people want a better life and to be financially stable. The constructivism theory makes a big impact on how I must design the course because I do want the students to think about their past experiences but I need to be careful and keep control of the class.

Learning Theories

Click on the links to learn more about the Learning Theories




Prof. Seymour Papert

According to Papert's hypothesize people can learn using technology.  Back in the 60's he would state that children were able to learn more if they had computers but back then personal computers where extremely expensive he was ahead of this time.  Papert never despaired and he believed in instructional technology was going to change the way of learning using computers.

Dr. Robert Gagne


9 Events the Nine Events: This is a great way to design a course.  This step helps to structure a course.


1.    Gaining attention: Showing students that having good credit and money in the bank can be possible.

2.    Informing the learner:  Letting them know how banks and credit reports work.

3.    Stimulating recall: Students can think back when they got rejected for credit or had no money in the bank to pay the bills.

4.    Presenting the stimulus:  Having good credit would help to get a house or a low interest rate on a vehicle.

5.    Providing learner guidance:  Give the students the tools on how to fix their credit report.

6.    Eliciting performance: Follow up with the students to see how they are doing when fixing their credit.

7.    Providing feedback:  Check to see how the student is improving his credit scores and let them know how they can do thing better or congratulating them on how well they are doing.

8.    Assessing performance:  After four to six months I would check with them to see if they are able to buy a home or to see how their credit is improving.

9.    Enhancing retention and transfer:  At this point we would do an evaluation to see how they did or what thing I must update on my course material.

B.F. Skinner


Skinner believe that behaviorist is a way that humans are shaped, something from the past can created a phobia on someone life because its bring a memory from the past.  An example of this would be traffic laws we follow the traffic laws because if we don’t we could have horrible consequences like a traffic ticket or an accident.  I’m sure many of us have received a traffic ticket and after that we had to attend traffic school that took eight hours of our time, we had to pay money for the violation and on top of that our car insurances premium is now a lot more.  We don’t drink and drive because we are afraid of being reprimanded or causing an accident and maybe in the past a person was a victim of a car crash or knows someone that was a victim and now they are afraid. Something from the past changed the way we think and now we can react differently.

B.F. Skinner


Ertmer, P., & Newby, T. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from a design perspective.  Performance

           Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50- 72. Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Garrison, D. R. (2011). E-Learning in the 21st century (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. ISBN-13: 978-0415885836; ISBN-10: 0415885833

Spector, J. M. (2016). Foundations of Educational Technology(2nd ed). New York:   Routledge. ISBN:978-1-138-79027-8;  ISBN:978-1-138-79028-5

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